Evidence from Europe

French Dragon tapestry.

A tapestry from a French chateau that shows a dragon (dinosaur) with her baby.This tapestry is from the Chateau de Blois in France, the building was constructed in the middle ages between the 13th and 17th centuries.

French dragon carvings in Chateau.

A carving of a dinosaur in Château Azay-le-Rideau in France showing it breathing fire. It resembles a species of Dinosaur known as Thecodontosaurus.

Dragon carvings from France.

Note the comparison between the dragon and the Dinosaur. It seems that peopel in the middle ages of France were well acquainted with Dinosaurs. Photo by Vance Nelson, ICR team.

French Dragon breathing fire.

Another carving of the fire breathing dinosaur from the French chateau. The animal is even depicted covered in scales, this means they msut have seen aliving one to know what one looked like since the image is not a mere skeleton.

Dragon fountain head.

"The famous temple of Muktinath lies in the district of Mustang and is situated 48 km north east of Jomsom at an altitude of about 3749 meters (12,300 feet) above sea level. The temple is situated on a high mountain range and is visited during fair weather. During the festival of Janai Purnima, Hindu devotees gather here to pay homage to lord Muktinath. The visitors get lodging facilities at Dharmasala and Maharani Pouwa. Another famous temple of Jwaladevi, the goddess of flame, is situated about hundred meters south of Muktinath. The Muktinath Temple was consecrated in 1815 A.D by Queen Subarna Prabha, the wife of Rana Bahadur Shah. This temple is built in a Tibetan pagoda style and contains huge brass idols of Lord Vishnu, Shiva, Brahma and Kali. The local name for Muktinath is Chumig Gyatsa. Both Hindus and Buddhists have visited Muktinath – Chumig Gyatsa for hundreds of years and this place reflects a unique blend of Hinduism and Buddhism. Muktinath geographically speaking is a high valley located on the Mustang Bhote region." ....Source: Pilgrimage Tours

On a wall of the temple are 108 "dragon headed" fountains which pilgrims seek out to "cleanse" themselves. Actually, the heads are variously described as; dragons or bulls.
At least one of the heads, as seen here in this photo, is not a dragon or a bull, but instead is an excellent likeness of a ceratopsian dinosaur.

A Saxon shield mount that strongly resembles a pterosaur.


The flying reptile Widfloga (or far-ranging flyer) was known to the Saxons and this shield-boss came from the Sutton Hoo burial site. It is displayed at the British Museum. This was but one type of dragon known to the Saxons and it was revered by them. This artifact is placed between the 6th and early 7th century.

Photo by Vance Nelson, ICR team.

Bishop Bells' Tomb Dragons.

A brass engraving on the grave of Richard Bell, The Bishop of Carlisle who was buried in the Carlisle Catherdal in 1496. The images are identical to what modern day people call Sauropods, or, long necked vegetarian Dinosaurs.

Mesopoatmian Sauropods.

Long necked dragons are shown on this Mesopotamian cylinder that has been dated at 3300 B.C. These animals look nearly identical to Sauropod dinosaurs that researchers are just now properly understanding. The creatures on the cylinder look like a Brachiosaur type Sauropod with heads and necks held high and a tall dome-like skull.

Roman Sea dragons.

The portrait shown here is a Roman mosaic dated to about 200 AD. They are identified as "sea dragons" and their identity has been likened to Tanystropheus, a long necked dinosaur that was semi aquatic. An interesting side note is that some non flying dragons were also ocassionally reported as having only two legs as well, this may be due to inadequate views of the animals or misinterpretation from "ear witnesses".

An Asian Dragon portrait with a Hyena.

The picture now shown is of an engraving of an Asian dragon and a Turkish Hyena. It is from the book by A. M. Myler who spent 2 years traveling and collecting accounts of local animals across the Middle East between 1725 and 1727.

Leonardo Da Vinci painting of a Dragon.

This is a picture of a drawing by Leonardo Da Vinci of a dragon attacking a lion. Note that just as many other drgon depictions, this animal has only two feet, a long tail, sharp teeth in a "beak", batlike wings and some sort of head ornamentation. 1452-1519 A.D.

Angloa Saxon Coin.

    This coin is said to come from the Sutton Hoo burial site where many Saxon artifacts were excavated. This coin depicts a four legged, wingless draon with a long tail and spines along it's long neck. It seems to strongly resemble a Sauropod type Dinosaur. These creatures can be found in many Anglo Saxon stories, legends, and artifacts throughout history.

Jonah and the Sea Monster.

This mosaic is from Aquileia duomo Mosaic in the Aquileia cathedral which was erected in the 11th century in Italy. It depicts the Greek dragon known as Ketos. This sea dragon strongly resembles a Plesiosaur type animal with it's flippers and long neck.

Pterosaurs and the Devil.

This portrait from 1591 shows witches bringing children to the Devil himself. Flying above them however are what look much like small Pterosaurs. The creatures have long tails with a barb on the tip, wings with ribs and no feathers, ornamentation on their head, and these seem to be breathing fire, a trait Pterosaurs may or may not have had. These types of animals were often associated with witchcraft and evil as many other aniamls were.

Magellan crossing the straits.

This 17th century image of going through the straits depicts in the top right corner what is known as a Roc, a giant fearsome bird. The Roc looks much like a Pterosaur and even has a headcrest, though the size is exaggerated as it is carrying an elephant. The Roc was well known to people in the region and shows up in many stories and myths but seems to have been based on a real creature or possibly creatures. How could people have known what extinct animals like Pterosaurs and Argentavis looked like without actually seeing one? In fact, as late as 2000 a report of a Roc came from Tierra de Fuego after sheep started disappearing.

The Burning of Farther Urban Gardnier.

This is a contemporary drawing of the burning of Farther Urban Gardnier. Amidst the smoke you can see creatures flying about. These creatures look much like other flying creatures found in the historical art of Europe and seem to portray Pterosaurs. They have featherless wings, long tails, only two feet and pointed heads.  The creature on the far left is the clearest representation. These creatures were often associated with evil or the Devil as can be seen in this picture since Gardnier was burned for allegedly signing a pact with the Devil.
The drawing is from 1634, well before people practiced Paleontology.

Collingham Shaft.

This stone column is from the 9th century A.D. It is of Saxon origin and depicts several creatures on it's sides. The image on the left seems to be a wolf. But on the side shown on the far right there are two types of animals that are very odd. On the bottom is what seems to be a pair of beaked reptiles that resemble Oviraptors, a type of Dinosaur. And above seems to be a long bodied reptile akin to a Baryonyx, a Theropod dinosaur that could walk on all fours.

Saxon Dragon horn.

I'm not sure where this piece came from but it is a Viking horn adorned with a flying dragon that looks much like a Pterosaur. These animals were well known to the Saxon people. More information on this piece is needed.

Saxon shield ornament.

This photo is of a shield adornment from the Sutton Hoo site and shows bird heads with curved beaks as well as what again appear to be the heads of Pterosaurs with large eyes and teeth displaying a terrible grin.

Saxon Helmet decorations.

These ornamnets are from a Saxon helmet. Again, they look strikingly like Pterosaur heads and even have coloring on them. The teeth are very pronounced on these pieces.

Saxon shield clasps.

These gold shield clasps came from the Sutton Hoo burial site and are dated to the early 7th century A.D. They look very much like the heads of Pterosaurs with large eyes and a mouth full of large, sharp teeth. This animal was known to the Anglo Saxons as Widfloga. A giant fearsome reptile that could fly long distances. Sounds like a Pterosaur to me..

Celtic Artifact.

This Celtic dragon artifact is dated to the 1st century A.D. It looks much like a Sauropod dinosaur attesting to the fact that the ancient Celts msut have seen these creatures to know what they looked like and model artwork after them.

Saxon Bipeds attacking.

    This carving from Lady Chapel south aisle St. Mary and St. Hardulph at Breedon-on-the-Hill in Leicestershire, England shows several bipedal creatures attacking some other animals. The attacking creatures are bipedal and have small forearms and appear to be the same type of creatures as described in the epic poem of Beowulf and called "Grendel".

    Thcarvings from the church date to between the 8th and 10th century A.D. when the kingdom of Mercia was at the height of it's power in England. Carvings were originally on the inside and outside of the church.

The following quote sums up the curiosity of the carvings and there likely identity:

"The stone in which these strange animals are carved, is preserved in the church of SS. Mary and Hardulph at Breedon-on-the-Hill in Leicestershire. This church used to belong to the Saxon kingdom of Mercia. The stone itself is part of a larger frieze in which are depicted various birds and humans, all of them readily recognisable. But what are these strange creatures represented here? They are like nothing that survives today in England, yet they are depicted as vividly as the other creatures. There are long-necked quadrupeds, one of whom on the right seems to be biting (or 'necking' with) another. And in the middle of the scene appears a bipedal animal who is clearly attacking one of the quadrupeds. He stands on two great hindlegs and has two smaller forelimbs, and carries what appears to be armour plating on his back. His victim seems to be turning to defend himself; but with his hindlegs buckled in fear."

"Now it cannot be pretended that these are merely caricatures of ordinary animals that are indigenous (these days) to the British Isles, for none of our present native species have long necks or are bipedal. So how are we to satisfactorily account for them? Is there a predatory animal from the fossil record known to us, who had two massive hindlegs and two comparatively puny forelimbs? There is indeed. In fact there are several such species, but how was our Saxon artist to know about such creatures if he'd never seen one? Are we looking here at a depiction in stone of the creature known to the Saxons and Danes as Grendel? Considering the close physical descriptions that we find in Beowulf, it would seem that we are."